To write fluent/elegant/idiomatic code

The benefits of reading open source projects have been demonstrated by many people. Whether it is to increase the understanding of tools used in daily development, or to learn to divide the project structure and improve the quality of the code better, reading open source projects is essential.

There are some interesting findings during the progress.Take the famous requests which gained over 3.5K stars as an example. There is a file ( in the first version v0.2.3 listed on github that used tab as a whitespace,it certainly doesn’t satisfy the requirements of PEP8 (:D

What is Pythonic Code

Pythonic code is to implement code in a pythonic way.Having a summary:

  1. OOP considers code reuse and extension. Many can use a basic class / ABC to provide an interface, other sub-class inherit from it just needs to implement the necessary function.

  2. Customize BaseException, such as class ProjectBasedException(Exception), and then use the code of the various inheritance exception classes to handle the specific exception, so that the prompt information can be reported more specifically.

  3. Define some small and common functions in utils, abstract the multiplexed code into @decorators; define the configuration files that will be used in settings, such as url, to avoid hard-coded.

  4. Defensive programming. Although _prefix can be used to define the private attribute to some extent, the parameters passed to the API must be type tested. Use a reasonable data structure or other tools (redis/celery) to limit the use of resources.

  5. meta-programming implements the User-defined behaviour.

  6. Standard comments for docstring and writing unit tests, logging important actions to files.

  7. On the basis of the above, some details, like replacing the string splicing with ''.join[], replacing the loop with list-comprehension also should be noticed.

Projects List

Not all high-star projects on Github are useful. For example, the code style of a 1000+ star project is not good, and a lot of code does not meet the principle of DRY(Don't Repeat Yourself) . There are still many projects that directly hack Python itself(so many variables and functions begin with __, it’s hard to understand what the logic behind it is)


Although the project has been deprecated in the description, it can still run smoothly. A forum project that includes the Node/Topic/Reply.

a. The implementation of OOP is very thorough, the following is an example:

{% highlight Python %}

Define saving method in Topic model

class Topic(db.Model): #… def save(self,user=None,node=None): if db.session.add(self) db.session.commit() return self

Form uses save method of Topic Model

class TopicForm(BaseForm): #… topic = Topic(** return,node=node)

Views uses method of Form

@bp.route('/create/int:id’,methods=[‘GET’,‘POST’]) @require_user def create(url_name): #… form = TopicForm() if form.validate_on_submit(): topic =,node) return redirect(url_for('.view’, return render_template(‘topic/create.html’, node=node, form=form)

So avoiding the hassle of calling the model and db.session.add(topic) in views.

{% endhighlight %}

b. there is a decorator @require_user, which is the permission management for the user. A user may have multiple roles. If you define a decorator for each of these roles, there will be too many repetitions. In this case let’s see what the author did:

{% highlight Python %}

Define a base class

class require_role(object): roles = { ‘spam’: 0, ‘new’: 1, ‘user’: 2, ‘staff’: 3, ‘admin’: 4, }

def __init__(self, role):
    self.role = role

def __call__(self, method):
    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
        if not g.user:
            url = url_for('account.signin')
            if '?' not in url:
                url += '?next=' + request.url
            return redirect(url)
        if self.role is None:
            return method(*args, **kwargs)
        if == 1:
            # this is superuser, have no limitation
            return method(*args, **kwargs)
        if g.user.role == 'new':
            flash(_('Please verify your email'), 'warn')
            return redirect(url_for('account.setting'))
        if g.user.role == 'spam':
            flash(_('You are a spammer'), 'error')
            return redirect('/')
        if self.roles[g.user.role] < self.roles[self.role]:
            return abort(403)
        return method(*args, **kwargs)
    return wrapper

Then define different permission limits for different roles

require_login = require_role(None) require_user = require_role(‘user’) require_staff = require_role(‘staff’) require_admin = require_role(‘admin’) {% endhighlight %}

zhihu-oauth by @7sDream

The second project is zhihu-oauth written by @7sDream. The overall structure is very beautiful, and the meta-programming is also very good. Especially considering that the author and I are peers, it is especially amazing. BTW, I also provide two PRs: pull-27 and [pull-28]( Oauth/pull/28)

The author reversely parses the zhihu Android client and encapsulates the oauth interface. Unlike other libraries that use simulated login and Beautifuoup to parse web content, zhihu-oauth can provide a more stable API. And it is also less likely to be blocked by ip.

The whole project is divided into three parts: oauth for verification, zhcls for class description, and client for combining the two to provide a login API.

For oauth:

  • The imZhihuAndroidClient class is defined in, inheriting requests.authbase. The methods that are used in building parameters such as api_version/app_version/zpp_za/ua are defined in __init__. Also use the method self._api_version=api_version or API_VERSION (from to allow the user to customize some parameters. The following __call__(self,r) is the mechanism of authbase and will be called automatically when posting a request.

  • defines the BeforeLoginAuth class, inherits the imZhihuAndroidClient class above, adds client_id to imZhihuAndroidClient, and uses self._client_id=client_id to execute validation before login. The implementation of __call__ is as follows:

{% highlight Python %} def call(self,r): r = super(BeforeLoginAuth,self).call() r.headers[‘Authorization’] = ‘oauth{0}'.format(str(self._client_id)) return r {% endhighlight %}

  • In, some parameters are used, such as ZHIHU_API_ROOT, LOGIN_URL=ZHIHU_API_ROOT+'/signin', all in uppercase.

  • In, the ZhihuToken class is defined, and the token is generated after the access is known. So obviously, according to OOP’s thoughts, the following job can be done:

The self._cretate_at=time.time(), self._expires_in=expires_in initialization tool is defined in __init__ and these are also provided:

{% highlight Python %} class ZhihuToken:

def from_dict(json_dict):
        return ZhihuToken(**json_dict)
    except TypeError:
        raise ValueError('{} is not a valid zhihu token json'.format(json_dict))

def from_str(json_str):
        return ZhihuToken.from_dict(json.loads(json_str))
    except TypeError:
        raise ValueError('{} is not a valid zhihu token str'.format(json_str))

def from_file(filename):
    with open(filename,'rb') as f:
        return pickle.load(f) # pickle ,long-time storage

def save(self,filename):
    saving token to file
    with open(filename,'wb') as f:

def user_id(self):
    return self._user_id

{% endhighlight %}

Look again at the implementation of As mentioned earlier,base exception should be provided for the entire project.

{% highlight Python %}

deal python2 and python3 respectively.

Also you can use if py2:import ..;else import ..,but it’s against the

principle of easier to ask for forgiveness than permission

try: from json import JSONDecodeError as MyJSONDecodeError except ImportError: MyJSONDecodeError = Exception {% endhighlight %}

{% highlight Python %} class UnexpectedResponseException(Exception): def init(self,url,res): "”” For all situations that json cannot be decoded,this exception will be used. "”” self.url = url self.res = res

def __repr__(self):
    return "when visit {self.url},get an unexpected response {self.res.text}".

__str__ = __repr__

{% endhighlight %}

Java 代码

Based on requirements,I ever investigaed the use of jedis to see how it handlers multi-thread situation.

It inherits Apache.commons.pool and it is called The super.getResource() method, which in turn calls the borrowObject method in the pool.In the borrowObject method, it has implemented the consideration of multithreading:

{% highlight Java %} long starttime = System.currentTimeMillis(); Latch latch = new Latch(); byte whenExhaustedAction; long maxWait; synchronized (this) { /* Get local copy of current config. Can’t sync when used later as it can result in a deadlock. Has the added advantage that config is consistent for entire execution

*/ whenExhaustedAction = _whenExhaustedAction; maxWait = _maxWait;

// activate & validate the object try { _factory.activateObject(latch.getPair().value); if(_testOnBorrow && !_factory.validateObject(latch.getPair().value)) { throw new Exception(“ValidateObject failed”); } synchronized(this) { // only one thread can execute at the moment _numInternalProcessing–; _numActive++; } return latch.getPair().value; } catch (Throwable e) { } {% endhighlight %}